Smart Lighting Evolution: From Obedient to Intelligent (Part 1)

The term “smart lightning” is widely known nowadays, though the history of the technology dates back to the late 90’s. The first solutions were quite primitive. About 20 years ago light timers connected to outdoor lamps started to be used to turn them on and off at certain times, and this solution might have been called “smart”. 5 years later, with the introduction of motion sensors, lighting systems became more complex and evolved. Half a decade later, motion sensors have combined with daylight sensors to switch the light on only when it is dark.

Modern sophisticated smart lighting solutions have come a long way from those basic systems. Let’s dive into the history of the technology to discover the key turning points and contemplate the bright future of smart lighting.

To begin with, let’s review some key milestones in the evolution of
smart lighting:

1959 – Joel S. Spira, the founder of
Lutron Electronics Company, invents the dimmer switch.

1989 — Ericsson Mobile begins the
development of a “short-link” radio technology, which in 1997 is named Bluetooth.

1992Blue LED is invented by
Shuji Nakamura, The University of California, Santa Barbara. A breakthrough in
lighting technology. In 2014 Nakamura was awarded the Nobel Prize for the
invention.

1998 — Codification of DALI, the
most popular smart lighting control protocol, is made.

1999 — The term “Internet of Things
is coined by Kevin Ashton, a creator of a global standards system for RFID
sensors.

2003 — The Zigbee wireless
short-range protocol is standardized, a key technology for modern smart
lighting solutions.

2006 — Wibree communication technology,
the predecessor of Bluetooth Low Energy, is launched by Nokia.

The Prehistoric Age of Smart Lighting

While consumers enjoyed basic dimmers and timers, the DALI (Digital
Addressable Lighting Interface) control protocol was the most popular wired
solution for commercial projects, such as office lighting automation. The
technology is quite flexible, components are cheap, and the installation is
easy (if it is part of the consideration for a new building).

Nowadays it makes sense to use DALI only for new commercial buildings, otherwise
the price of installation may skyrocket due to the required routing of wires
through preexisting electric cable networks and reconfiguration of the existing
installation. For home use, it’s not a viable option.

There are also some challenges that the industry is working to overcome when
using DALI for the modern smart lighting industry:

  • It requires wires. Though with the help of gateways
    it’s possible to connect DALI with a wireless protocol of choice, the lighting
    control system will be cumbersome and not easy to manage. Moreover, the area is
    not standardized.
  • The commissioning process is far from simple. DALI
    groups are quite complicated to configure and thus require more resources for
    the system reconfiguration.
  • Component and network testing, as well as fault finding, is challenging.
  • Interoperability issues. DALI products might be not
    interoperable, even though the technology is standardized.
  • DALI doesn’t support the confirmation of the sent
    messages. So, if a system sends a command to turn on a light and there is a
    collision with another command, there is no failsafe for the light to in fact be
    turned on.

DALI is still quite widespread, but wired protocols are gradually
stepping down from the smart lighting stage.

Back then, smart lighting solutions were cumbersome, costly, inefficient
and could hardly be called smart.

And Then There Was LED…

The era of traditional incandescent light bulbs is almost over. LED has
begun to revolutionize smart lighting in the last decade. Since there’s a
low-voltage semiconductor inside LED bulbs, it’s quite obvious to control it
digitally. LEDs work with microcontrollers exceptionally well.

The first widespread use of this combination began to emerge at the beginning
of the 21st century, when color-changing LEDs took the planet by
storm. Spectacular lightning installations fascinated consumers and were the
first real step towards smart, and later intelligent, wireless lighting
solutions.

The LED revolution has accelerated with the decreasing prices of
different sensors, network chips, and microcontrollers. At the same time,
humanity has stepped into the wireless and connected world.

In the next article, we will focus on a range of advantages that LED has brought to the smart lighting market and try to identify LED’s key advantages that helped to make the transition from obedient to intelligent lighting.

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